Commencement

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Completing a dissertation in political science at West Virginia University is no easy task for an individual. It takes a significant amount of work, dedication, and, most importantly, collaboration with others. Therefore, I must recognize the help of many other individuals, whether they provided support that helped my work or encouragement of my commitment to it. Their contributions and support were instrumental in this undertaking and deserve mention. Even though the words pale in comparison, thank you for everything—as insignificant as it sounds.

I would like to mention a few specific individuals who made this original research and small contribution to knowledge possible. The first and foremost has to be Robert DiClerico, Ph.D., who chaired the committee for this dissertation. His passion for the Presidency, his socratic-method approach to teaching, and his legendary seminar on the American Presidency cultivated my interest in the president and engendered in me the desire to use my dissertation to learn more about this area of research. He is the quintessential professor: rigorous, engaging, and challenging as well as friendly and approachable. I will continuously strive to emulate him as a scholar, professor, and academician. His presence provided continual encouragement regarding my ability to undertake this and future scholarly endeavors. I am not able, in the space allotted, to say enough about how much I owe to Dr. DiClerico for his help with this project. He provided guidance, questions, and comments that enhanced this research and enabled me to think about the Presidency as would a serious scholar. Dr. DiClerico’s fastidious and meticulous approach to the use of language has, without doubt, made this a better and more readable piece of research. I am honored to have had him as the Chair of my dissertation. I am forever in his debt.

I would like to thank Richard Brisbin, Jr., Ph.D., for his incredible insight and comments about this project. His unmatched intellect and memory helped me tremendously during the construction of this dissertation, the writing of the actual project, and the editing of the final product. Moreover, he has challenged me to be a better scholar, researcher, and teacher throughout this entire process. The seriousness with which he approaches scholarship is noteworthy. Dr. Brisbin has contributed to the field of political science by publishing voluminously; I can only hope to follow, in some small way, his example of scholarship.

I would also like to thank Jason MacDonald, Ph.D., for all of the time and effort he put into helping me make this dissertation better. Dr. MacDonald provided me with many productive revision suggestions and comments about how to connect my infant ideas to a sound theory that was grounded in the extant research. His constructive criticism was instrumental in the final draft of this dissertation. Mostly, however, I would like to thank him for his insistence in ensuring that the statistical model and specification of my dissertation made sense and did not violate any assumptions or rules. Without his guidance, this dissertation would not have the statistical rigor that accompanies political science research. Moreover, I would like to thank Dr. MacDonald for his commitment to political science scholarship and his goal of making sure that all political science graduate students at West Virginia University understand how to contribute to the discipline in a professional manner.

I must also mention my appreciation for Jeff Worsham, Ph.D., who provided valuable comments, insights, and constructive criticism about this research. He was able to help guide my research into a more comprehensive and scholarly attempt. He helped me to conceptualize an initial idea, develop it empirically, and articulate it in a scholarly manner. He has continually challenged me to produce concise and articulate scholarly writing. His constant encouragement about “putting a brick in the wall of research” and “not building the entire wall” helped to alleviate many of the pressures that dissertation writing brings to graduate students. Moreover, Dr. Worsham, as the graduate director, was instrumental in my progress throughout the Ph.D. degree. Without his guidance and direction, it would have been easy to unnecessarily prolong my time in the program. For his help, I am truly grateful.

This original research could not have transpired without the work of other scholars who have come before me. Their work provides insight and inspiration. Moreover, their creativity and inquisitive approaches to the Presidency have engendered an abundant collection of research that, once understood, can lead to further studies that advance knowledge. Suffice it to say, I am forever grateful that I can stand upon their shoulders and contribute to the literature and research on the Presidency, however small that contribution may be. These scholars are numerous; I would, however, like to mention a few of the most prominent and most significant: Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha, Ph.D.; George C. Edwards, III, Ph.D.; Jeffrey Tulis, Ph.D.; Dan Wood, Ph.D.; Jeffrey Cohen, Ph.D.; Paul Light, Ph.D.; and Richard Neustadt, Ph.D.

I would also like to thank a few of the professors I have previously studied under during my educational pursuits. Their passion for teaching and research cultivated my interest in graduate school and scholarly endeavors. Their encouragement helped me along the way to develop my own path: Steven Hunt, Ph.D. (Gordon College); Norman Faramelli, Ph.D. (Boston University); Stanley Marrow, SJ, Ph.D. (Boston College); Gerald Pops, Ph.D. (West Virginia University); Jennifer Hevelone-Harper, Ph.D. (Gordon College); Carol Bohn, Ed.D. (Boston University); Roger Green, Ph.D. (Gordon College); Kevin Madigan, Ph.D. (Harvard Divinity); John Kilwein, Ph.D. (West Virginia University); François Bovon, Ph.D. (Harvard Divinity); Adrianne Williams, Ph.D. (West Virginia University); Paul Borgman, Ph.D. (Gordon College); Robert Duval, Ph.D. (West Virginia University); V. Rev. John Behr, D.Phil. (St.Vlad Seminary).

It is to my wife, Joni R. Magnusson, that I owe the most thanks for helping with the writing of this dissertation. She always provided the type of support I needed to keep me sane and focused. She is, without a doubt, the smartest, most beautiful, and most determined individual I have ever met. She is steady in the pursuit of her goals. I have never seen a person work harder than she does. Over the years, this attitude and perspective have motivated me to be the same way. I am forever grateful for her presence in my life. I never would have had the fortitude to undertake or complete such a thing as a Ph.D. had it not been for her encouragement. I am unable to count the number of times I returned home to tell her about my plan to leave school due to my inability to cope. It is because of her support that I never quit and continued onward in my pursuits. I must also mention how much I appreciate the fact that she edited many of my undergraduate and graduate papers as well as this dissertation. Her ability to help me clarify my scattered ideas and her consistent willingness to be patient with the subject matter, and my feeble attempt at explaining it, are nothing short of saintly. Moreover, I have to mention what a great wife she is and mother she will continue to become. From the first time I saw her, I have been and continue to be enamored of her. I hope that our daughter can become the strong woman her mother is. She makes me want to be a better man and person. My life is forever enriched by her presence in it. I love her so much, and I cannot wait to see what life has in store for us and our future.

I would like to thank my daughter Sophia Katherine, an incarnation of pure joy and happiness. Her smile is illuminating and life-changing. While writing this dissertation, I saw her develop from a newborn to a toddler. I will never forget the many nights she slept on my chest as I wrote and wrote. Her mere presence was motivating and inspiring. I am so proud of her. I thought that the day she was born was the most amazing day of my life; every day since then, however, has been more rewarding and fulfilling. Being Sophie’s dad is the most humbling, greatest privilege and honor I have ever experienced. I love her so much, and I look forward to the many more years we have ahead of us as a family.

I would also like to thank Joshua Woods, Ph.D., a friend, colleague, and mentor of sorts. Not only did he help with “simplifying” my dissertation research, which vastly improved my operationalization, he has also shown me, practically and candidly, what it means to be a scholar and producer of original knowledge. During our collaborative scholarly work, he helped me learn valuable research and writing skills that I will use for the rest of my career. Moreover, he has, on many occasions, mentioned his confidence in my ability to be a teacher and researcher at a university. This encouragement, coming from such an accomplished academician, makes me believe that I can accomplish my goals and undertake such lofty endeavors with great aplomb.

I would like to thank Cindy Drumm, the Director of the Student Support Services Center at West Virginia University where I worked while completing this degree, as well as the other staff, namely Vivian Lama, Vanessa Harrison, and Heather Van Gilder as well as Sherry Rose, Erica Bentley, Kylie Evans, and most importantly, the students of SSS. I am so appreciative of their encouragement and support for the pursuit of higher education. Without the flexibility allowed me in my work schedule, I would never have been able to finish this dissertation. Moreover, the encouragement and inspiration I received from so many first-generation and low-income students was humbling and nearly life-changing.

I would specifically like to thank the West Virginia State University for hiring me as an Assistant Professor of Political Science. It is an honor to have been selected for this opportunity; the greatest career in the world. The support and flexible schedule that accompanied this prestigious position enabled me to write this dissertation more successfully. Moreover, the privilege to teach and mentor students from the great state of West Virginia is an honor and the fulfillment of a lifelong goal. I am so grateful for the trust they bestowed upon me and for the confidence they have in me.

I cannot have an acknowledgements section without mentioning my fellow graduate students who were either dealing with the same challenges as I was or were about to enter into the comprehensive exam or dissertation writing phases of their studies. Thank you for always listening to my complaints and sharing in my successes. Having fellow graduate students around to take part in the process of complaining, bickering, and dissecting failures as well as the sharing of camaraderie, productive discussion, and profound insights was greatly cathartic.

I must also make mention of the many other persons who made this goal of mine possible. I am sorry that I am forgetting, in my post-dissertation writing and defense stupor, to mention you by name. Please know that I am grateful and appreciative of all your help.

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